Welcome to the Record Extra, a collection of important research articles about the Cathedral. Please click on the individual links to access the articles. We will be adding further articles to Record Extra at regular intervals to create a comprehensive library of Cathedral research for the use of all. Record Extra complements the Annual Record, printed and distributed each year to Friends of Winchester Cathedral. For more information on this contact email@example.com
May 2021 New Articles
Forget Me Not: House of Remembrance (PDF)
In a major, illustrated review of Winchester Cathedral’s memorials, Julie Adams considers of the extensive range of those who are remembered, the various types of memorials and the way these developed as both the use and the needs of the Cathedral changed.
Mary I, Queen of England: How ‘Bloody’ Was She? (PDF)
The July 1554 wedding of Mary I, England’s first crowned queen regnant, and Philip II of Spain in Winchester Cathedral had consequences which are felt to this day. Johanna Strong contends that their marriage significantly influenced how Mary is remembered in the English historical narrative and her legacy is very much tied to both Philip’s unpopularity in England and Spain’s empire building in the sixteenth century. Their wedding in the Cathedral, their marriage, and the legacy of Mary’s reign are the focuses of this article.
The Formation of the Friends of Winchester Cathedral (PDF)
This year (2021) is the 90th anniversary of the formation of The Friends of Winchester Cathedral. Tom Watson’s article explores the early history of the Friends, as well as the Church and social contexts of 1931. Rather than being an isolated event, the establishment of the Friends was part of a major change that took place in the Church from the mid-1920s onwards.
January 2021 Articles
John Ponet, Bishop of Winchester 1551-1553 (PDF)
John Ponet (1516-1556) was the bishop of Winchester who held the See from 1551-53 when the conservative Stephen Gardiner was imprisoned by Edward VI in the Tower of London. Anne Lovett demonstrates that Ponet’s standing as a leading Protestant theorist and close ally of Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, was far greater than he has been given credit for. She concludes that “he should be better known”.
St Catherine of Alexandria – the Legendary Saint (PDF)
Although St Catherine of Alexandria is considered to be of legendary status, her cult rose in importance during the medieval period. Tom Watson reviews the status of this early martyr saint and her place within Winchester Cathedral and the environs of the city and finds that she was one of a select group of female saints who were universally venerated during the middle and late medieval periods.
January 2020 Articles
Record Extra’s focus this time is the Anglo-Saxon Cathedral and community that is evoked so movingly in the Kings and Scribes exhibition. For this edition we have focussed on individuals: Emma, Swithun and Ethelwold. Our new article is by Mary Ford on Emma of Normandy. The other articles testify to what an astonishing archive the Winchester Cathedral Record is. It is an unbroken run from 1932 to 2019. The cumulative outcome is a collection of essays that cover close to every conceivable facet of the Cathedral. In the next few months, The Friends plan to put the whole archive, fully indexed, online. The material will then speak for itself. For now, we offer two articles by R.N.Quick, one from 1957 on Saint Swithun and one from 1963 on Saint Ethelwold. Both offer insight into a period of history that saw Winchester at the centre of the Anglo Saxon world, something that is captured in the exhibition and on the tours Mary Ford and her colleagues take visitors on.
Emma of Normandy by Mary Ford (PDF)
The only woman to be twice crowned Queen of England. The wife of two Kings and mother of two Kings. Died in Winchester in 1052 and buried beside her second husband Cnut in the Old Minster.
Saint Swithun by R.N.Quick 1957 (PDF)
Probably born in Winchester, probably tutor to Alfred. Consecrated Bishop of Winchester in 852. Famous for the buildings he created, but he had also the rarer attribute of humility and kindness. His “miracles” inspired veneration, and faith in his miraculous cures continued for many centuries. His shrine became a place of pilgrimage.
Saint Ethelwold by R.N.Quick 1963 (PDF)
Consecrated Bishop of Winchester in 963 and the second of Winchester’s saints. One of the leaders of a great reformation of the Anglican Church and a renaissance in English art. Born in Winchester, Dunstan’s Priest at Glastonbury, Benedictine reformer and inspiration for “The Winchester School of Illumination”.
September 2019 Articles
How the Reformation came to Winchester and how Prior William Basyng became Dean William Kingsmill by Andrew Payne (PDF)
On the ledger stone above the grave of William Kingsmill, the dedication, now lost, read, Willimus Kingsmell prior ultimus, Decanus primus Ecclesiae. William Kingsmill last prior, first Dean. Short, simple, straightforward. Kingsmill’s life may have been short but it was neither simple nor straightforward. The manner in which he became prior, by corruption of a very high order, and the way in which the great wealth of the monastery remained largely intact as the English Reformation swept through Winchester and the prior became Dean is a truly remarkable tale.
William of Wykeham in 1393 – The Only Surviving Household Expenses Account Roll – An Introduction by Dr Brian Collins (PDF)
This is an introduction to William of Wykeham’s household account roll which contains detailed daily and summary expenses over a six month period in 1393. It’s the only such roll to survive in full for the household of a Bishop of Winchester and has been archived in the muniments room at Winchester College. The roll is of animal skin and comprises 21 membranes sewn neatly together, each about 35cm wide, the full roll having a total length of nearly fifteen metres. It is written on both sides and comprises upwards of 100,000 words.
The article is accompanied by a full medieval Latin transcript and English translation for both sides of the roll, and these are over 100 pages of A4 each. Further articles will be published in the future based on this account roll which will look at aspects of the life of William of Wykeham and his household in 1393; such as the food and drink consumed, the guests at his table, and the working lunches held to discuss the rebuilding of the nave of Winchester Cathedral.
Below are the links to a full Medieval Latin transcript and an English translation
William Wykeham’s Household Account Roll – April 1st to 30th September 1393 – Translation – Verso
William Wykeham’s Household Account Roll – 1st April to 30th September 1393 – Translation – Recto
William Wykeham’s Household Account Roll – 1st April to 30th September 1393 – Transcript2 – Verso
William Wykeham’s Household Account Roll – 1st April to 30th September 1393 – Transcript2 – Recto
William Wykeham’s Household Account Roll – 1st April to 30th September 1393 – Transcript1 – Verso
William Wykeham’s Household Account Roll – 1st April to 30th September 1393 – Transcript1 – Recto
September 2018 Articles
The Exploding Ivory: Some Reflections on Narrative in Jane Austen (PDF)
This article by Louisa Dubery is a transcript of a talk within a series of presentations given by her team of Cathedral guides. Based upon Austen’s own likeness of her work to a ‘little bit….of ivory’, it is an exploratory paper in which Louisa discusses first some aspects of Austen’s narrative art which illustrate the ivory qualities. Building upon an article in The Lancet which suggests that Jane Austen died of Addison’s disease, Louisa then looks at how certain changes in narrative in Austen’s last works may be related to the particular cognitive effects of falling cortisol levels, thus destroying or exploding the ivory image even long before she had to stop writing.
Restored and Resplendent: Carvings within the Presbytery Vaulting (PDF)
Julie Adams is one of a team of three guides, who have taken a special interest in the recent conservation work in the presbytery and devised a tour for visitors entitled
“Magnificence Revealed”. In this article, Julie comments upon previous restorations of the bosses within the 500 years since their installation; she describes the subject matter of the bosses and provides diagrams to show how they are arranged. The group in the bay nearest the high altar are almost all symbols of Christ’s passion, and the biblical references for these are specified.
A Brief History of The Great Screen of Winchester Cathedral (PDF)
On 6th February BBC News reported that more than 100 years of dust were being cleaned from the ornately carved stone screen behind the high altar at Winchester Cathedral. The cost of this prodigious “spring clean” was borne by Friends of Winchester Cathedral so it is very pleasing to include an article by Jeannie Berridge which gives details of its chequered history over the last 540 years. More than 50 statues adorn the screen and they represent such diverse characters as St Swithun, the fisherman Isaak Walton, Cardinal Wolsey, and Queen Victoria.
Winchester Cathedral – Safe, Sound and Secure – A Centenary Tribute to William Walker (PDF)
Winchester Cathedral – Safe, Sound and Secure – A Centenary Tribute to William Walker – May 2021 Addendum (PDF)
Written by by David Farthing, this is a tribute to William Walker, the diver, who played a vital role in the underpinning project in the early years of the 20th century, and as a result has become known as the man who “saved the cathedral with his own hands”. 2018 marks the centenary of his death from influenza in 1918; this article explores the enduring visual evidence of his work through a virtual tour of the cathedral. An addendum prepared by David Farthing on the Centennial commemoration of William Walker in March 2-19 was added in May 2021.
May 2018 Articles
Bishop Richard Fox – His Reformation and Piety by Pat Thornhill (PDF)
It was the norm for Bishops of Winchester to combine their roles as bishops with a political or diplomatic role, and when Richard Fox became Bishop of Winchester in 1501, he was a close ally of Henry VII, and Keeper of the King’s Seal. Pat Thornhill writes that for Fox “two things were paramount, his loyalty and service to his King and to God”. She goes on to explain that he was one of the great reforming bishops of the medieval period, who generously founded his own college, Corpus Christi in Oxford, and ensured that churches and property in the diocese were kept in good order. He adopted the Pelican in her Piety as his personal emblem, and was “famed for his piety and learning”.
Interpreting the Carvings in the Quire, by Stephen Jones(PDF)
The intricate carvings of the quire present to the onlooker a celebration of life in all its complexity. In this article, Stephen Jones offers some ideas for interpreting possible underlying meaning through the carver’s use of particular creatures or specific foliage, and concludes that on occasions the messages are mixed or contradictory.
Winchester’s Lesser Saints by Tom Watson (PDF)
Swithun is the saint most closely identified with Winchester Cathedral. There are other, lesser-known saints who were celebrated in liturgy and litany in the Anglo-Saxon and early-to-central medieval times. Tom Watson offers a guide to ten Anglo-Saxon saints associated with the cathedral and two continental saints whose relics were brought to Winchester to form important cults.
January 2018 Articles
Challenging Times for Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, by Andrew Payne(PDF)
This reappraisal of Bishop Gardiner shows a man of contradictions. He made the case for Henry’s Supremacy as head of the Church. He supported Anne Boleyn’s rise yet later, he brought back the laws for burning Protestants.
The Fascination of Green Men: Winchester’s Contribution, by Julie Adams(PDF)
Many puzzle over how and why a symbol which predated Christianity is often found in churches and cathedrals throughout Europe. There are four different forms of the motif and Winchester Cathedral boasts examples of all four. In this article, Julie Adams identiﬁes over 40 examples which are the easiest to see, and shows where they can be found in the Cathedral.
The Misericords of Winchester Cathedral, by Michael Calle(PDF)
This article was originally published by Friends of Winchester Cathedral in 1994. Michael’s widow, Mary Callé, has agreed for his text to be published online with new photographs by Simon Newman. The result is a comprehensive guide to the 52 misericords in the Quire.
September 2017 Articles
The English Reformation by Vivienne Ferris (PDF)
Vivienne Ferris puts the English Reformation into context, 500 years on from Martin Luther’s challenge to the dogma of the Roman Catholic Church, in what is now Germany. This challenge led to the growth of the Protestant Movement throughout Europe.
The Life and Amazing Times of William of Waynflete by Anna Withers (PDF)
Anna Withers considers William of Waynflete’s involvement in many of the major events that took place in his lifetime.
William Waynflete and his Survival through Extraordinary Times (PDF)
Andrew tells of Waynflete’s many achievements, and shows how his foundation of Magdalen College in Oxford stemmed from an overriding desire to combat heresy.
June 2017 Articles
56 Days by Jane Maxwell (PDF)
Jane Austen’s life drew to a close in Winchester in the summer of 1817. Jane Maxwell reveals how Jane’s letters and the letters of those closest to her during that time, poignantly demonstrate her struggle, her faith, and the deep family love that supported her.
Joan of Navarre by Tom Watson and Natalia Rodriguez-Salcedo (PDF)
Tom Watson and Natalia Rodriguez-Salcedo write about the second wife of Henry IV, Joan of Navarre, whom he married in Winchester Cathedral in 1403. Joan of Navarre was a very successful consort alongside her first husband in Brittany, and then again in England, and yet she is relatively uncelebrated. The authors enlighten us about this “invisible” queen.
Remembering Lt Edward Bligh by Julie Adams (PDF)
The only window in the Cathedral by Christopher Whall, the well known glass maker working in the Arts and Crafts style, is dedicated to a young man, Lt Bligh, who lost his life at Gallipoli in 1915 whilst serving with the Royal Naval Division. Surprisingly, he has several other memorials and Julie Adams looks at his short life and the various places in which he is remembered.
January 2017 Articles
Cardinal Beaufort’s Will by Andrew Payne (PDF)
Cardinal Henry Beaufort was an immensely rich man, closely related to the reigning monarchs, and extremely useful to them as he was able to lend them money during his lifetime. In this article Andrew Payne explains how his enormous wealth was distributed at his death.
The Wall Paintings of the Lady Chapel by Julie Adams (PDF)
For more than four years the Lady Chapel has been inaccessible, and the wall paintings have been out of view. Julie Adams describes an extraordinary display of images depicting the Miracles of the Blessed Virgin Mary – a reminder of a popular cult suppressed by the Reformation.
Thomas Wolsey – Favours or Bribes in 1530 by Brian Collins (PDF)
Brian Collins reviews the surviving contemporary documents concerning Cardinal Thomas Wolsey and particularly those that are held in Winchester Cathedral Library arising from his administration in commendam of the Bishopric of Winchester.
September 2016 Articles
Shakespeare’s Scarlet Hypocrite by Anna Withers (PDF)
Anna Withers examines Beaufort as portrayed in Henry VI, parts I and II, comparing this with what we know of the historical character, Cardinal Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester from 1404 to 1447.
A Book on the Carthusians owned by William Basynge by Brian Collins (PDF)
William Basynge was the last Prior of St Swithun’s Priory, and when the monastery was surrendered he became William Kyngesmylle, the first Dean or Guardian of our Cathedral. Brian Collins looks at a book owned by Basynge about the Carthusians and reveals some surprising information about the Sect.
A Little Light on the Dark Ages – A Brief Introduction to the Anglo Saxons by Mary Ford (PDF)
In this article Mary Ford describes some of the events that led to the spread of Christianity in England, and how Winchester came to be one of the most important centres in the Anglo Saxon period.
June 2016 Articles
The Architectural Context of Medieval Winchester Cathedral by Benedict Yates MA (PDF)
Benedict Yates describes the development of church architecture from the earliest examples hidden within private houses, through to the familiar cruciform shape we recognise today.
Winchester Stone by Dr John Parker (PDF)
Dr John Parker provides a comprehensive survey of the types and sources of stone used for buildings in Winchester, with a particular emphasis on the stone used within the cathedral.
The Winchester Cathedral Blaeu Globes by Andrew Payne (PDF)
Andrew Payne sets out evidence for the dating of the terrestrial and celestial globes owned by the cathedral.
A Selection of Latin Inscriptions at Winchester Cathedral by Pat Wagstaff (PDF)
Pat Wagstaff has chosen 25 examples of the cathedral’s most interesting Latin inscriptions, on ledger stones and memorials. In addition, she has provided two appendices, giving translations for common Latin expressions used on memorials and explaining how dates were described.
January 2016 Articles
Changes to the 14th Century Quire Stalls by Stephen Jones (PDF)
Stephen Jones looks at all the important changes to the quire stalls since their installation, right up to the latest change in 2012.
The Great East Window: Analysis and Hypothesis by Julie Adams (PDF)
Julie Adams looks at the visual evidence for the content of the Great East Window at the time of the last conservation project of 1832 and suggests what the original scheme may have been when it was inserted in c.1525.
The Royal Progress and Anne Boleyn’s visit to Winchester by Brian Collins (PDF)
Brian Collins examines surviving, contemporary documents that suggest Anne Boleyn not only visited Winchester in September 1535 but also committed ‘infidelity’ here with her musician Mark Smeaton, one of the accusations that led to her execution in 1536.
September 2015 Articles
Joan of Arc, Jeanne la Pucelle (1412 – 1431,) by Andrew Payne (PDF)
Joan of Arc is one of just two internationally recognised figures with memorials in Winchester Cathedral. Andrew Payne tells her story, correcting the frequently held belief that she was tried and executed by the English and showing that Cardinal Beaufort, bishop of Winchester, was not present at her trial, nor responsible for her interrogation, as depicted in the famous painting by Paul Delaroche (1824).
A Winchester Cathedral Altar Piece of 1526 at Knole, by Brian M Collins (PDF)
Few items of religious significance in Winchester Cathedral survived the Reformation. However, we know from the inventory of 1535 that the cathedral contained many gold, silver and other valuable objects. Brian Collins describes a magnificent Altar Piece which used to adorn Winchester Cathedral. Made in 1526 and commissioned by John Avington, the Sub Prior at the time, it is now to be found at Knole in Kent.
E. Gordon Selwyn 1931-1958 by Lindy Bradley (PDF)
Lindy looks back at the life of Gordon Selwyn, Dean of Winchester for twenty seven years and founder of the Friends.
Medieval Glass: The Influence of Three Great Bishops, by Julie Adams (PDF)
Although only a tiny fraction remains of the original medieval glazing of our cathedral, it is nevertheless one of our great treasures, and we are much indebted to our predecessors for the vision they had when they made plans to enhance the building. Julie Adams looks back at three bishops and their influence on the stained glass we see today.
“Wally”, by C G Stevens (PDF)
The full transcript of the notes of appreciation on John le Couteur, probably written for “The Wykehamist”, but never published.
Stories from the past, by John Crook (PDF)
An opportunity to delve deeper into the cathedral archaeologist’s year.
Record Extra Archive
Choir Stalls and Connections, by Julian English (PDF)
Julian English writes about the death watch beetle, an excited chemist and the role of a new insecticidal preservative in protecting and restoring the 14th century choir stalls.
Humphrey Ellis and the Antichrists, by R C Richardson (PDF)
A moderate Presbyterian in the war-ravaged Winchester of the late 1640s, Ellis taught that religious toleration was something to be resisted. His published tract on a certain ‘Antichrist’ William Franklin may well have contributed to a new Blasphemy Act in 1650.
The Pomp of Two Bishops of Winchester when Travelling, by Brian M Collins (PDF)
Brian Collins looks at the travelling habits of Bishop Thomas Wolsey and Bishop Stephen Gardiner in the sixteenth century. A tale full of ostentatious displays of wealth, death from the plague and seasick horses.
Charlotte Yonge, by Lindy Bradley (PDF)
Lindy Bradley explains why Bishop Sumner and his wife (the founder of the Mothers Union) proposed Charlotte Yonge’s Cathedral memorial and looks back at Charlotte’s life in Otterbourne, her moral teaching for young ladies and her role in naming Eastleigh.